Such designs are known as fast breeder reactors. PHWRs was a natural choice for implementing the first stage because it had the most efficient reactor design in terms of uranium utilisation, and the existing Indian infrastructure in the s allowed for quick adoption of the PHWR technology.
Though conventional thermal reactors also produce excess neutrons, fast reactors can produce enough of them to breed more fuel than they consume.
If you know about chemistry, you will know how reactive sodium is, and if it is hot it is even more so, so it is potentially dangerous although the liquid metal does not have to be pressurised.
The SNR fast breeder reactor was finished after 19 years despite cost overruns summing up to a total of 3. Thermal breeder reactor which use thermal-spectrum i. In a power reactor the heat produced is of primary importance for use in driving conventional heat engines; the beams of radiation are controlled by shielding.
Many types of breeder reactor are possible: The ratio of new fissile material in spent fuel to fissile material consumed from the fresh fuel is known as the "conversion ratio" or "breeding ratio" of a reactor.
Both techniques are common in ordinary light-water reactors. Natural uranium is unsuitable for use in a nuclear reactor, however, because it is only 0. Stage I — Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor[ edit ] In the first stage of the programme, natural uranium fuelled pressurised heavy water reactors PHWR produce electricity while generating plutonium as by-product.
Reactors with a thermal neutron spectrum are called thermal breeder reactors — these typically utilize thorium as fuel. There is a coolant surrounding the reactor which is used to protect the core from overheating. Long-lived fission product FNRs can reduce the total radiotoxicity of nuclear waste, and its lifetime.
Fast reactors technically solve the "fuel shortage" argument against uranium-fueled reactors without assuming undiscovered reserves, or extraction from dilute sources such as granite or seawater.
Fission and absorption cross sections are low for both Pu and U at high fast energies, which means that fast neutrons are likelier to pass through fuel without interacting than thermal neutrons; thus, more fissile material is needed.
But since plutonium breeding reactors produce plutonium from U, and thorium reactors produce fissile U from thorium, all breeding cycles could theoretically pose proliferation risks.
They can produce more fissile fuel than they consume, from U or thorium. After five years, the core was removed and found to contain nearly 1.
Commercial nuclear reactors normally use uranium fuel that has had its U content enriched to somewhere between 3 and 8 percent by weight.
This was considered an important measure of breeder performance in early years, when uranium was thought to be scarce. From it became the subject of renewed interest worldwide.
Generally breeder reactors produce more fuel than they consume. Gas-cooled fast reactors have been the subject of research commonly using helium, which has small absorption and scattering cross sections, thus preserving the fast neutron spectrum without significant neutron absorption in the coolant.
For example, commonly used light water reactors have a conversion ratio of approximately 0. Almost any of these basic design types may be fueled by uranium, plutonium, many minor actinides, or thorium, and they may be designed for many different goals, such as creating more fissile fuel, long-term steady-state operation, or active burning of nuclear wastes.
These reactors are nuclear reactors which produce more fuel than they utilize in their operation. Control elements, which are made of materials that absorb neutrons, are placed among the fuel assemblies. That mass difference means that thorium requires six more neutron capture events per nucleus before the transuranic elements can be produced.
A breeder reactor is defined as a reactor that both consumes and produces fissionable fuel. Ask 'What are the advantages of nuclear fission power' and see the reply, there is …also in the links section another reply to 'What are the disadvantages of nuclear fission power', so there is no need to repeat these.
A consequence of operating with fast-moving neutrons hence the common name Fast Breeder Reactors, or FBR is that there is a higher chance of transmuting U uranium- to Pu Plutonium Fast breeder reactor FBR which use fast i. These metals can cause a mishap, as they react violently when exposed to water or air.
Also, in Marchlarge deposits of uranium were discovered in the Tummalapalle belt in the southern part of the Kadapa basin in Andhra Pradesh. Aside from water cooled, there are many other types of breeder reactor currently envisioned as possible. Fermi 1 near Detroit was a prototype fast breeder reactor that powered up in and shut down in Fast breeder reactors do not require a moderator, allowing for a variety of working fluids.
Two types of fast breeder reactors are Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (GCBRs), often cooled by pressurized helium, and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs), which are cooled by molten sodium.
Fast Breeder Reactors Abstract In this report I will investigate how different breeder reactors operate, the many problems addressed by the Fast Breeder Reactor, including efficiency and cost, the disadvantages of Fast Breeder Reactors, and working examples.
fast breeder reactor india pdf The current population of India in the year is about 1. 2 Fast Breeder dykophotocomposition pdf Reactors in France.
india's fast breeder nuclear reactor programme. A fast breeder reactor is the optimum for breeding fissile fuel, and these use a liquid metal as coolant. This type has been experimented with but not developed commercially.
At present there is no shortage of newly mined uranium, so no great incentive to do so, this may change in the future. Fast breeder reactors do not require a moderator, allowing for a variety of working fluids. Two types of fast breeder reactors are Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (GCBRs), often cooled by pressurized helium, and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs), which are cooled by molten sodium.
Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed.Download